The first part of this article is an edited Dutch summary of the paper ‘Oral-health-related benefits of orthodontic treatment’ by Donald J. Burden in the special issue ‘Orthodontics: quality of care, quality of life’ in Seminars in Orthodontics (June 2007). Burden carried out a systematic review of the literature on some, historically claimed, beneficial influences of orthodontic treatment, such as reduced susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal disease, temporomandibular dysfunction, and traumatic injury. Based on the results of this review, Burden concludes that the oral health benefits of orthodontic intervention have not been demonstrated. The second part is a critical and balanced commentary on the content of the paper and on Burden’s conclusions.