The material to be used for closing the root canal when carrying out a retrograde surgical apical endodontic treatment continues to be a subject of discussion. The aim of the present study was to inventory which materials are being used for this purpose at this moment by Dutch O&MF surgeons. All practicing Dutch OM&F surgeons (n = 195) were sent a questionnaire. The response rate was 77%. The results showed that at this moment intermediate restoration material (IRM) is the retrograde filling material most widely used by the Dutch O&MF surgeons (47.6%) in cases of surgical apical endodontic treatment. Amalgam, with 35%, was second, especially due to its plasticity and convenience. The choice of material is just as often determined by tradition, personal preference, individual experience or scientific results. There seems to be no relationship between the dental surgeon’s number of years of experience and the type of retrograde filling material which he or she uses.