Children are born with healthy mouths. The goal of primary prevention is to maintain this healthy situation. Starting primary prevention as early as possible, preferably at the moment of eruption of the primary teeth, is recommended. Estimating the caries risk, for example, with the help of a system such as the NOCTP method, is an important tool for deciding the check-up interval, bitewing interval and other care interventions. Prevention is always key. Active lesions may require another treatment, too, in addition to prevention. Inactive lesions as well as cleansable cavitated lesions do not require invasive treatment. Non-cleansable cavitated lesions are candidates for invasive treatment such as slicing as part of a non-restorative caries treatment (NRCT), Hall crowns or conventional restorations. The child’s well-being is always the most important factor in choosing the right treatment.