Bones are of crucial importance for the human body, providing skeletal support, serving as a home for the formation of haematopoietic cells, and reservoiring calcium and phosphate. Long bones develop by endochondral ossification. Flat bones develop by intramembranous ossification. Bone tissue contains hydroxyapatite and various extracellular proteins, producing bone matrix. Two biological mechanisms, determining the strength of bone, are modelling and remodelling. Modelling can change bone shape and size through bone formation by osteoblasts at some sites and through bone destruction by osteoclasts at other sites. Remodelling is bone turnover, also performed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The processes of modelling and remodelling are induced by mechanical loads, predominantly muscle loads. Osteoblasts develop from mesenchymal stem cells. Many stimulating factors are known to activate the differentiation. Mature osteoblasts synthesize bone matrix and may
further differentiate into osteocytes. Osteocytes maintain structural bone integrity and allow bone to adapt to any mechanical and chemical stimulus. Osteoclasts derive from haematopoietic stem cells. A number of transcription and growth factors have been identified essential for osteoclast differentiation and function. Finally, there is a complex interaction between osteoblasts and
osteoclasts. Bone destruction starts by attachment of osteoclasts to the bone surface. Following this, osteoclasts undergo specific morphological changes. The process of bone destruction starts by acid dissolution of hydroxyapatite. After that osteoclasts start to destruct the organic matrix.