The expectation that tuberculosis would be eliminated in the Netherlands by about 2030 has been negatively adjusted due to a variety of factors. The incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis has even increased. The risk for oral health care providers to be exposed to tuberculosis has also increased. A questionnaire among dentists revealed that knowledge concerning tuber culosis is limited. On the basis of a review of the literature, an overview is given of the pathways of tuberculosis infection, the immunology of tuber culosis, clinical signs of tuberculosis, resistance to tuberculosis, diagnostic tools for tuberculosis, and the therapy and prevention of tuberculosis. Emphasis is placed especially on manifestations of oral tuberculosis and the prevention of tuberculosis in dental practice.