Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor symptoms, which are accompanied or often even preceded by non-motor symptoms. Pathologically, the disease is characterised by neural degeneration in specific brain regions, including the dopaminergic neurons of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. At the molecular level, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, altered protein handling, and reactive microgliosis contribute to the neural degeneration. Advanced age is a significant risk factor. Men are more often affected by the disease than women. Environmental, life-style and genetic factors are potential aetiological factors. The disease is primarily diagnosed on the basis of clinical features. In clinically uncertain cases, magnetic resonance imaging and dopamine transporter single-photon emission computer tomography can provide additional information. Patients usually die due to comorbidity. Parkinson’s disease has also several negative influences on the orofacial system.
C. de Baat
M.A.E. van Stiphout
K.D. van Dijk
|Publicatiedatum||5 oktober 2018|
|Editie||Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd - Jaargang 125 - editie 10 - oktober 2018; 509-515|